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首页:公司动态 >> 目前托辊制造存在的主要问题及分析
1 目前托辊制造存在的主要问题及分析 1 the current main problems of roller manufacture and analysis 带式输送机托辊是个简单的小部件,正因为是小部件,历来被忽视。托辊的结构设计较为简单,如图1 ,此结构是目前的规范结构,本文暂不探讨设计结构问题,主要针对此结构分析研究加工工艺过程和托辊加工设备的加工方法,然后优化设计出托辊数控自动化生产线工艺优化方案,为托辊数控自动化生产线的设计提供工艺方案。 Belt conveyor roller is a simple widget, because be the widget, has always been neglected. Roller of the structure design is relatively simple, as shown in figure 1, this structure is the specification of the structure, temporarily not to discuss design problems, this paper focuses on the structure analysis of the machining process and processing method of roller processing equipment, and then optimize design of roller CNC automatic production line process optimization scheme, for the roller process scheme for the design of numerical control automatic production line. 图1 托辊辊子 Figure 1 roller roller 1.1 托辊辊体 1.1 the roller roller body 如图2,1-管子,2-轴承座,把轴承座放入管子两端的止口内,然后在环式焊床上把轴承座和管子焊接在一起。 As shown in figure 2, 1 - pipe, 2 - bearing seat, put the bearing into the seam allowance at the ends of the pipe, and then the ring weld the bearing seat on the bed and tube welded together. 存在的工艺缺点是:1)轴承座和管子采用焊接工艺造成了轴承座热变形,轴承座的内孔与管子的平行度受到了影响,也就是两端的轴承座的同心度得不到保障,2)由于是手工安设轴承座,轴承座内孔与设备的顶头公差较大(为了便于安设),轴承座的外径与管子止口孔的公差也较大,实际制作的辊体,无法保证图2中所标注的同心度。 Shortcomings of process are: 1) the bearing seat and pipe welding process caused by bearing thermal deformation, and the inner hole of the bearing with parallel pipe affected, namely the concentricity of the bearing at the ends of the protected, 2) because it is handmade make bearing seat, bearing inner hole and equipment of immediate larger tolerance (set) to facilitate, the outer diameter of the bearing and the tube through hole tolerance is bigger also, the actual production of the roller body, there is no guarantee that the concentricity of marked in figure 2. 图2辊体 Figure 2 roller body 1.1.1 管子 1.1.1 pipe 目前托辊辊皮(也叫管子)加工的设备是上世纪80年代的AG真人产品,用于制造辊皮的钢管,在径向上公差较大并有椭圆度,在轴向上直度公差较大,加工出来的辊皮,基本无法保证径向圆的跳动量。国家煤炭行业标准MT821-2006规定的径向圆跳动量的最小值为0.7mm,采用现行的加工设备和钢管加工的托辊辊皮,达标比率较低。 The idler roller skin (also called pipe) processing equipment is the product of the 1980 s, used in the manufacture of steel pipe roller skin, on the radial tolerance is larger and the ovality, tolerance is larger in the shaft straightened, roll leather processing, basic is no guarantee that the radial beat quantity of the circle. MT821-2006 national coal industry standard amount of radial round to beat the minimum value of 0.7 mm, with the current machining equipment and steel pipe roller roller skin, standard ratio is low. 具体问题有: Specific questions are: 1)管子镗口时,管子2端止口间的距离,即图3中尺寸937,误差较大并数值分散,误差值一般在3mm范围。此误差给托辊轴的加工带来了不便。若托辊轴完全按图纸要求加工,就会有30%以上的托辊辊体与轴,由于轴上轴用挡圈槽的距离相对小,而无法装配。目前实际加工中,为了解决相互尺寸不配套的问题,大多数的厂家只好放大托辊轴上轴用挡圈槽的距离,一般放大值在3-5mm。放大后虽然解决了无法装配的问题,但又带来了30%以上的托辊轴向穿动量超标,影响了现场使用。之所以产生此类问题,是由于加工设备落后,采用无触点限位开关设定进给行程。 1) the pipe boring, pipes, the distance between two side seam allowance, namely the size in figure 3, 937, and the numerical dispersion error, error value generally in the range of 3 mm. This error brought inconvenience to the supporting roller processing. If the roller completely according to the drawing requirements processing, there will be more than 30% of the idler roller and shaft, due to the shaft axis with the distance of the ring groove is relatively small, and can't assembly. In the actual processing, in order to solve the problem of size don't match each other, most of the manufacturers have to enlarge the distance with the retaining ring groove on the roller shaft as, general zoom value in 3 to 5 mm. Enlarged although have solved the problem of unable to assembly, but also brought momentum to exceed bid more than 30% of the roller to wear, impact on the field use. Is such a problem, is due to the processing equipment, using non-contact limit switch set feeding schedule. 2)管子镗孔设备夹持管子的夹具没有纠偏对准功能,采用V型铁或圆锥内表面的方法来夹持或顶持辊皮并设定轴向中心,然后两端镗口或倒角,加工出安放轴承座的止口或引导口,加工出的管子外皮相对于管子2端止口的轴线,径向跳动量较大。原因有三点,其一是管子端口与管子轴线的垂直度误差,其二是管子端口的椭圆度及直径误差,其三是设备的设计缺陷及精度。 2) pipe boring equipment clamping pipe clamp without correction function, adopt the method of v-shaped iron or conical surface to clamping or a roller skin and set the axial center, and then on both ends of the boring or chamfering, work out put the seam allowance or guide mouth of bearing seat, work out the tube skin relative to the pipe axis of the 2 end, radial runout is high. The reason has three, one is the pipe port with the pipe axis perpendicularity error, error of the second stage is the ovality and the diameter of the pipe port, the third is the design defects and the accuracy of the equipment. 3)目前管子镗孔设备技术落后,精度低,管子2端止口的加工精度不够,同心度难以保证,图纸的技术数据见图2、图3 。 3) the pipe boring equipment technical backwardness, low accuracy, pipe processing precision of the two side is not enough, hard to ensure concentricity, drawings, technical data as shown in figure 2, figure 3. 图3 管子 Figure 3 pipe 加工手段远离设计的要求,没有按照图纸要求进行严格的加工制造。图2是托辊管子的设计图。主要原因是目前的托辊加工专用设备是上个世纪80年代研发的,当时科技落后,研发力量薄弱,无法实现托辊轴的有效加工,也就保证不了图纸的技术要求。 Processing means far away from the design requirements, there is no strict manufacture carried out in accordance with the drawings requirements. Figure 2 is the roller design of the pipe. The main reason is that the current roller machining equipment is developed by the 80 s, when science and technology, research and development strength is weak, unable to realize the effective processing of roller, also cannot guarantee the requirements of the drawings. 1.1.2 轴承座 1.1.2 bearing 轴承座是经过4-5次冲压成形的,由于冲压工艺定位存在缺陷, Bearing seat is stamping after 4 to 5 times, due to the defect of stamping process orientation, 图4 轴承座 Figure 4 bearing 往往造成轴承座外边内面(与管子止口台阶的接触部份)与轴承座的中心孔轴线不垂直,把这样的轴承座安设到管子2端的止口内后,两端轴承座的同心度误差较大.见图2 Often cause bearing inside outside (contact with the pipe through the steps of part) is not perpendicular to the center hole of the bearing axis, so the bearing installed to pipe within 2 side seam allowance, at both ends and the concentricity of the bearing error is bigger. As shown in figure 2 1.2 轴 1.2 axis 托辊轴是个简单的零件,材料一般选用冷拔轴,加工量不大,加工精度中等。但是,由于批量大,通用设备加工效率太低;目前的专用设备落后,需要切断、平头打中心孔、车槽、铣扁4道工序,这些设备为常规工艺,没有实现数控和全自动化,加工效率太低,人工费用高,加工精度主要靠操作人员来实现。大部分企业,各工序之间的转运靠人工来完成;去除毛刺更是手工完成。 Supporting roller is a simple parts, cold drawing axis is generally selected materials, the processing capacity is not big, the machining accuracy of medium. But, because of the large batch, general equipment machining efficiency is too low; Current special equipment backward, and need to cut off the turning, milling, flat centering, flat 4 process, the equipment for the conventional process, do not implement nc and full automation, machining efficiency is too low, the high cost of artificial, machining accuracy is mainly accomplished by the operator. Most of the enterprise, transfer between each process by artificial to complete; Remove burrs is done by hand. 图5 轴 Figure 5 axis 1.3 托辊装配 1.3 roller assembly 目前托辊装配主要采用专用托辊液压压床来完成。存在的问题是: The roller assembly mainly adopts roller hydraulic press. The problem is: 1)1个行程,当设备调整好后,只有单独1个行程,压完两端的轴承后,需要把托辊搬运到第二个压床,再压装密封。造成功效低,用人多,产量低。也有把轴承和密封同时一起压装的,这是不合乎工艺要求的,往往产生过压,把密封和轴承过度接触,造成无法转动,不在我们的探讨范围。 1) a trip, after the equipment adjust good, only a trip alone, after pressure at the ends of the bearing, need to turn the roller to the second press, seal installation again. Lead to the low efficiency, more of choose and employ persons, lower productivity. Also have a bearing and seal pressed together at the same time, this is not accord with technical requirements, tend to produce overpressure, the excessive contact seal and bearing, unable to turn, not in the scope of our discussion. 2)调整行程复杂费时。先做大行程粗条,需要松开紧固螺栓,推动机头,然后再调整油缸细扣螺母,用板尺反复测量等等,费工费时,一般的操作工还难以胜任。 2) adjust stroke complicated time consuming. Do big trip cord, first need to loosen the fastening bolts, push the nose, and then adjust the cylinder retaining nut, repeated measurements, etc., with plate ruler takes work, general operator is difficult to do.
[来源:原创] [作者:aywl] [日期:17-03-10] [热度:]
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